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INGRESS PROTECTION

This is one of the most important factors to be considered when selecting any electrical equipment (cooker, dishwasher, etc). Ingress protection (IP) rating indicates degree of equipment or control panel protection against ingression of solids & liquids in addition to protection against mechanical impact.
Ingress protection rate is coming in the form IP x-y-z
Where x, y & z are digits and represent;
x = First digit – represents protection against solids
y = Second digit – represent protection against liquids
z = Third digit – represent protection against mechanical impact (ignored for most of equipments)
The following tables give different values of x, y & z, i.e. the different protection ratings according to European standard
 
1-    Protection against solids:
x
Degree of protection
0
No protection
1
Protected against solids above 50 mm size (hands, tools, etc)
2
Protected against solids above 12 mm size (tools, fingers, etc)
3
Protected against solids above 2.5 mm size (wires and similar)
4
Protected against solids above 1 mm size (wires and similar)
5
Limited protection against dust
6
Totally protected against dust
  
2- Protection against liquids:
y
Degree of protection
0
No protection
1
Protection against vertically falling drops of water (condensation)
2
Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15° angle from vertical
3
Protection against direct sprays of water up to 60° angle from vertical
4
Protection against water sprayed from all directions (limited ingress permitted)
5
Protection against low pressure jets of water from all directions (limited ingress permitted)
6
Protection against high pressure jets of water from all directions (limited ingress permitted)
7
Protected against the effect of immersion between 15 cm & 1 m
8
Protected against long periods of immersion under pressure
 
3- Protection against mechanical impact:
z
Degree of protection
0
No protection
1
Protection against 0.225 joule mechanical impact (150 g weight from 15 cm height)
2
Protection against 0.375 joule mechanical impact (250 g weight from 15 cm height)
3
Protection against 0. 5 joule mechanical impact (250 g weight from 20 cm height)
5
Protection against 2  joule mechanical impact (500 g weight from 40 cm height)
7
Protection against 6  joule mechanical impact (1.5 kg weight from 40 cm height)
9
Protection against 0.225 joule mechanical impact (5 kg weight from 40 cm height)
 
As an example if an equipment protection is IP 68, it means that equipment is totally protected against dust & against long periods of immersion in water under pressure.